I've been wondering about this for a while. My understanding is that quick-releases can provide anywhere from about 700-1400 LBS of clamping force (depending on manufacturer and QR-style), which is considerably more than can be applied with either tradition nutted axles (full length axle with track/floating washer nuts) or "bolt-in" style axles (hope, CK, dt-swiss, etc, style hubs).
The only legitimate arguments i've seen so far are:
1: Nutted style bolt on hubs can possibly have a larger contact area with the dropout/forkend compared to many quick releases. This may aid significantly in holding power.
2: Bolt-on style hubs (not bolt-in, think surly hubs or similar) allow for easy use of chain-tugs which, when used properly, pretty much prevent any possibility of the hub slipping.
3: a bolt style hub cant get caught on something and accidentally open up. I think this mostly applies to BMX racing and track racing.
So what other arguments can anyone think of?
As far as personal experience goes, I've had both Surly hubs and Hope hopes with nutted axles and and bolt-ins, respectivly, and they both needed chain-tugs to prevent slipping.
My road bike, with 34-25 max low gearing, has never slipped in semi-horizontal dropouts with just a stock Shimano QR
Where to begin; First while a QR max'es out at your 1400 lbs, the clamping force on a 10mm axle at 30 ft lbs torque is over 4500 lbs., so your statement that a QR is more powerful than a nutted axle is way flawed. Further, QR's are rarely used "track fork ends", (BMX, Track Bikes, one speed cruisers) and it is only recently that singlespeeders have even attempted to use them with very limited success.
1. Nutted axle not only have a larger contact area, but can be tightened with 4 times the clamping force. With exception of older Campy QR's, skewers only have one steel clamping surface, while the other is usually aluminium; most the inferior exterior cam QR's have aluminium on both surfaces; aluminium is self lubricating on steel.
2. Chain-tugs came out of the Velodrome, but really aren't very popular with riders (it's the added weight) Besides track applications, the primary use for chain-tugs is ease of adjustability, and the use of QR's on singlespeeds with track- ends.
3. True, bolted axles can not accidentally "pop" loose, however since QR's are never seen on track bikes and rarely on BMX bikes, it's pretty much a none issue.
Other arguments? Well you haven't discussed that popular, non-Shimano, exterior cam QR's have only 1/2 the clamping force of interior cam QR's. Exterior QR's are so weak, they can easily fail when using disc brakes, even with fork dropouts. If you have had axle nuts slip than you either used inferior track nuts, have paint built up on track end surface, or your simply not tightening the nut hard enough.
No one said a QR will not work on a road bike with horizontal dropouts (heck that was the type of setup it was designed around), but that is a world away from track ends. With track ends, the chain forces pull on the axle in a straight path; horizontal dropouts actually face down, meaning a percentage the chain forces on the whatever is being used to hold the hub in place, is used up pulling the axle not only back, but down.
Anyway, that's my arguement. I have bikes with pretty much every configuration and I know what works on which dropout/ track end; believe what you will, but a QR is no where as strong as a nutted axle.