Although there are some scratches, they don't even go down to the white epoxy primer, which should be the layer beneath the paint, and there are no CF fibers present, which seems to indicate to me that it's not likely that something was jammed in there. Scratches are a normal part of riding, but scratches from impact damage are much more prominent IME. I transported a fat-bike once and the wheel was situated so the cassette rested against the downtube and scratched the hell out of it. Although I don't think I damaged the underlying CF, the scratches were prominent and unmistakable. Very different from this photo. I've also done some CF repairs on my turner, sanding down to the bare CF. There's a good bit of clear coat, paint and sealing epoxy that should be showing if you are really getting down to CF. Surely there would be scars going deep if this was all the case, but it doesn't look so to me.
Cracks show white, but not the scratches and the scratches don't seem to be correlative with the cracks (as in, leading into a crack). Two types of failures you are going to see are tension and compression failures. Tension will be snapping CF fibers. Compression will be mainly cracks without the visible busted CFs.
Although cracks can also indicate point impact damage, there appears to be a lack of scaring/scratching that I'd expect to see with such an impact.