You're fine. Just wrap the chain stay to prevent further damage and so you're not looking at it every time you ride. Lots of products for this, I prefer the helicopter tape type of products. The first big scratch is always the hardest!
You shouldn't have any problems unless it gets worse. If your chain is very worn you may be getting chain suck. Measure your chain for wear and replace as needed. Your chainring looks newer, so no worries there.
As mentioned, keep your drivetrain clean. That can be another contributing factor to chainsuck.
I wouldn't be surprised if your chain was already worn out. I blew through a Sram PC-1051 chain in 275 miles last season. My bike was set up 1x with the chain as short as possible, like yours, which both make chains wear faster. Having a 1x drivetrain means your chain is more often used in extreme angles than a 2x or 3x drivetrain, and having the chain as short as possible means that each link is getting used more than if the chain was longer. I wouldn't be surprised at all if your chain was worn out and not wanting to release off your N/W chainring (which is designed to retain a chain). I'd bet a new chain and drivetrain cleaning would solve your chainsuck issue.
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